Swimming principles, theorys to maximize your stroke using less energy creating a more efficient stroke.

Swimming principles /propeller theory

Swimming principles,You use your hands when swimming as well as your feet as propellers rather than wings, but propellers are just rotating wings. Each time your hands of feet change direction they act as new blades rotating into undisturbed water, where additional lift can be obtained. To maximize propulsion limb direction must be accurate, mainly vertical and lateral to get lift. You must use your hands/arms as paddles until sufficient pitch (direction of inclination), and velocity in the new direction, is reached.

In all sweeps a circular or angular pathway is used thus providing efficient stroke patterns. Stroking in a curvilinear pathway allows for changes in direction from one pathway to the next with the minimum interruption to provide propulsive power. Arm movements in the wrong direction not only lead to loss of propulsion, but also represent wasted effort and energy.

In the bent actions your arm goes from straight, bent to straight again. By shortening the lever, greater forearm leverage can be applied, which has the effect of bringing the load closer to the force being applied. A dropped elbow does NOT permit the arm to work with the same mechanical advantage.

The leg action lift force is created. In the alternating kicks, and butterfly, the feet travel downwards and outwards during the downbeat, deflecting water backwards as they do. The feet are pitched upwards so that the direction of the water passes over them is changed from upwards to backwards.

In the main, leg action is used to obtain and maintain the horizontal position, whilst providing some propulsion. The arms generally provide the power, because they are flexible, and capable of a greater range of movement, than the legs, and can capitalize on the upper body strength.

Swimming principles /resistance or drag

PROFILE RESISTANCE, or form drag

Depends upon the shape of the object and its speed through, and density of the liquid in which it is traveling. Profile resistance is reduced by streamlining.

EDDY CURRENTS, or wave drag

Turbulence at and around the extremities of the body.

VISCOUS DRAG

Friction between the body and the water molecules. Smooth surfaces cause less friction, which is why some swimmers shave down for a race, and/or use friction reducing swimming costumes.

ALL THESE RESISTANCES TO MOTION ACT AT THE SAME TIME

Swimming principles /Principles common to all four strokes

1. Hands/arms are not moved through the water in a straight line, but in an elliptical pattern 2. The swimmers does not apply power with a straight arm. There is a straight-bent-straight elbow action 3. The elbow is carried high 4. The hand is pitched on entry 5. The hand is pitched during the action, in order to obtain lift. 6. The body is as streamlined as possible. 7. The swimmer should not throw water against their body.

Optimum speed and efficiency will upon producing a stroke based upon:-

SOUND MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES

MAKING THE BEST USE OF AVAILABLE PROPULSIVE FORCE

MAXIMUM STREAMLINING

Economy of effort, together with relaxation, will not only conserve energy but also delay the onset of fatigue


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Thank you for reading hope you enjoyed it, Dale Dudley

I have written two pages about swimming principles the other page is about floating and density in the water if you are interested, it gives an insight to how/why we float and how anyone can swim/float Click here to look at my page about floating and density